The Undeclared War Against France

The French Republic won the War of the First Coalition when Austria, Prussia, Spain and The Netherlands made peace. French royalty’s first attempt to restore the Bourbon monarchy had failed.…

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What did Jefferson Really Buy?

When the Senate ratified the Louisiana Purchase on October 20th, 1802, no one in Washington really knew what the country bought for $15,000,000. The boundaries were not well defined and…

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Financing the Louisiana Purchase

The new United States of America had a Mississippi River problem because in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, Britain was guaranteed access to the river that ran down the middle…

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The Land of the Bean and the Cod

Fishing rights off the Newfoundland and the entrance to the St. Lawrence River were bones of contention during treaty negotiations at the end of the Seven Years War in 1763…

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