The Politics of War in 1780 Are Similar to Those in 2021

The machinations of politicians in democratic legislative bodies to stay in power often put them out of touch with what is happening on the battlefield. During the American Revolution, the British government faced the same disconnects between what the generals in the field were telling them and their own political ambitions.

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Problems of Remaining Neutral in 1798

The French Revolution which began in 1789 presented a series of difficult foreign policy challenges for the United States. One of the clauses in the Franco-American 1778 Treaty of Friendship…

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The Undeclared War Against France

The French Republic won the War of the First Coalition when Austria, Prussia, Spain and The Netherlands made peace. French royalty’s first attempt to restore the Bourbon monarchy had failed.…

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What did Jefferson Really Buy?

When the Senate ratified the Louisiana Purchase on October 20th, 1802, no one in Washington really knew what the country bought for $15,000,000. The boundaries were not well defined and…

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Financing the Louisiana Purchase

The new United States of America had a Mississippi River problem because in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, Britain was guaranteed access to the river that ran down the middle…

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